Alternaria sp.

Mitosporic fungus. Hyphomycetes. Anamorphic Pleosporaceae.
Distribution

Ubiquitous;
cosmopolitan.
Approx. 40-50 species.

Where Found

Soil, dead organic debris, on food stuffs and textiles. Plant pathogen, most commonly on weakened plants.

Mode of Dissemination

Dry spore.
Wind.

Allergen

Commonly recognized. Type I allergies (hay fever, asthma). Type III hypersensitivity pneumonitis: Woodworker’s lung, Apple store hypersensitivity. May cross react with Ulocladium, Stemphylium, Phoma, others.

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

Nasal lesions, subcutaneous lesions, nail infections; the majority of infections reported from persons with underlying disease or in those taking immunosuppressive drugs. Most species of Alternaria do not grow at 37°C.

Potential Toxin Production

A. alternata produces the antifungal alternariol. Other metabolites include AME (alternariol monomethylether), tenuazonic acid, and altertoxins (mutagenic).

Growth Indoors

On a variety of substrates.
Aw=0.85-0.88 (minimum for various species)

Industrial Uses

Biocontrol of weeds and other plants.

Other Comments

One of the most common fungi worldwide.

Aspergillus sp.

Mitosporic fungus. Hyphomycetes.Teleomorphs (sexual state): Eurotium, Neosartorya, Emericella (Ascomycetes).
Distribution

Ubiquitous;
cosmopolitan.
Approx. 200 species.

Where Found

Soil, decaying plant debris, compost piles, stored grain.

Mode of Dissemination

Dry spore.
Wind.

Allergen

Common. Type I allergies (hay fever, asthma). Type III hypersensitivity pneumonitis: Humidifier lung, Malt worker’s lung, Compost lung, Wood trimmer’s disease, Straw hypersensitivity, Farmer’s lung, Oat grain hypersensitivity, others.
Other: A. fumigatus: allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), allergic fungal sinusitis.

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

Respiratory, invasive, cutaneous, ear, and corneal disease. Severe, invasive disease is usually associated with immunosuppressed hosts. Many species grow at 37°C (body temperature).
A. fumigatus: fungus ball and invasive disease.
A. flavus: nasal sinus lesions, invasive disease.
A. niger: “Swimmer’s ear,” and invasive disease.

Potential Toxin Production

Partial list:
A. flavus: aflatoxin B1 & B2, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid
A. fumigatus: ergot alkaloids, fumigaclavines, gliotoxin, fumigatoxin, fumigillin, fumitremorgens, helvolic acid, tryptoquivaline tremorgens, verruculogen.
A. niger: malformin C, oxalic acid.
A. ustus: austocystins.
A. versicolor: aspercolorin, averufin, cyclopiazonic acid, sterigmatocystin, versicolorin.

Growth Indoors

On a wide range of substrates. Water requirements range widely (dependent on species).
Aw=0.71-0.94 (minimum for various species).

Industrial Uses

Many, including practical applications in food production. For example, A. oryzae is used to ferment soybeans to soy sauce. A. terreus produces mevinolin which is able to reduce blood cholesterol; A. niger is used in the bread and beer making industries (enzyme production) and also is able to decompose plastic. A. niger and A. ochraceus are used in cortisone production.

Other Comments

Aspergillus is one of the most common fungal genera, worldwide, and Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most common species found

Chaetomium sp.

Ascomycete.
Distribution

Ubiquitous;
cosmopolitan.
Approx. 81 species.

Where Found

Soil, seeds, cellulose substrates, dung, woody and straw materials.

Mode of Dissemination

Spores are formed inside fruiting bodies. Spores are forced out an opening and spread by wind, insects, water splash.

Allergen

Not well studied.
Type I allergies (hay fever, asthma).

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

Uncommon agent of onychomycosis (nail infection).

Potential Toxin Production

Chaetomin. Chaetomium globosum produces chaetoglobosins. Sterigmatocystin is produced by rare species. Other compounds produced (which may not be mycotoxins in the strict sense) include a variety of mutagens.

Growth Indoors

Widespread, cellulolytic, very commonly found on damp sheetrock paper.

Industrial Uses

Used in textile testing and the production of cellulase.

Other Comments

None.

Cladosporium sp.

Mitosporic fungus. Hyphomycetes. Teleomorphs (sexual state): Mycosphaerella, Venturia (Ascomycetes).
Distribution

Ubiquitous;
cosmopolitan.
Approx. 28-40 species. One of the most common genera, worldwide.

Where Found

Soil of many different types, plant litter, plant pathogen, leaf surfaces, old or decayed plants.

Mode of Dissemination

Dry spore (formed in very fragile chains, easily dispersed).
Wind.

Allergen

Common and important allergen.
Type I allergies (hay fever, asthma).
Type III hypersensitivity pneumonitis: Hot tub lung, Moldy wall hypersensitivity.

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

Generally, non-pathogenic. One species, Cladosporium carrionii, is an agent of chromoblastomycosis in subtropical and tropical regions (grows at 35-37°C).

Potential Toxin Production

Cladosporin, emodin.
(Neither are highly toxic.)

Growth Indoors

Widespread, on many substrates, including textiles, wood, moist window sills. Grows at 0°C, and so is associated with refrigerated foods.
Aw=0.85-0.88 (minimum for various species).

Industrial Uses

C. herbarum produces enzymes which are used in the transformation of steroid intermediates such as pregnenolone and progesterone, biologically important hormones used in the industrial production of oral contraceptives.

Other Comments

G.S. deHoog & J. Guarro have placed species associated with human infection in a new genus Cladophialophora, i.e. Cladophialophora carrionii, C. bantiana. Older medical texts refer to this fungus by its former name Hormodendron species.

Fusarium sp.

Mitosporic fungus. Hyphomycetes. Teleomorphs (sexual state): Gibberella, Nectria (Ascomycetes).
Distribution

Ubiquitous;
cosmopolitan.
Approx. 50-70 species.

Where Found

Soil, saprophytic or parasitic on plants. Many species are important plant pathogens.

Mode of Dissemination

Wet spore.
Insects, water splash, and wind when dried out.

Allergen

Type I allergies (hay fever, asthma).

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

Causes keratitis, endophthalmitis, onychomycosis, mycetoma, and disseminated infection in immunocompromised patients; infections in burn victims, and systemic opportunistic infections in severely disabled hosts.

Potential Toxin Production

Trichothecenes (type B); T-2 toxin; zearalenone (F-2 toxin), vomitoxin, deoxynivalenol, and fumonisin. Zearalenone is not acutely toxic, and actually may have positive effects with controlled ingestion.

Growth Indoors

Occasionally found on a variety of substrates. Fusarium requires very wet conditions.
Aw=0.86-0.91 (minimum for various species).

Industrial Uses

Zearalenone has been patented as a growth stimulant in animals and has application as an oral contraceptive, and as an anabolic steroid (<1ppm). F. graminearum is used for the production of quorn, a mycoprotein.

Other Comments

None.

Penicillium sp.

Mitosporic fungus. Hyphomycetes. Teleomorphs (sexual state): Eupenicillium, Talaromyces (Ascomycetes).
Distribution

Ubiquitous;
cosmopolitan.
Approx. 200 species.

Where Found

Soil, decaying plant debris, compost piles, fruit rot. P. glabrum has been isolated from diesel fuel.

Mode of Dissemination

Dry spore.
Wind, insects (fungus serves as a food source for storage mites).

Allergen

Common.
Type I allergies (hay fever, asthma).
Type III hypersensitivity pneumonitis: Cheese washer’s lung, Woodman’s lung, Moldy wall hypersensitivity.

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

One species of Penicillium species, P. marneffei, is a cause of human infection. It has not yet been found in the United States.

Potential Toxin Production

Various toxins by different species: penicillic acid, peptide nephrotoxin, viomellein, xanthomegin, xanthocillin X, mycophenolic acid, roquefortine C & D, citrinin, penicillin, cyclopiazonic acid, isofumigaclavine A, penitrem A, decumbin, patulin citreoviridin, griseofulvin, verruculogen, ochratoxin, chrysogine, and meleagrin.

Growth Indoors

Widespread. Commonly found in house dust. Grows in water damaged buildings on wallpaper, wallpaper glue, decaying fabrics, moist chipboards, and behind paint. Also found in blue rot of apples, dried foodstuffs, cheeses, fresh herbs, spices, dry cereals, nuts, onions, and oranges.
Aw=0.78-0.86 (minimum for various species).

Industrial Uses

Roquefort and camembert cheese, salami-sausages starter culture; anti-bacterial antimicrobial penicillin, and anti-fungal antimicrobial griseofulvin.

Other Comments

Penicillium is one of the most common fungal genera, worldwide.
Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) produced: Penicillium commune produces 2-methyl-isoborneol, a heavy musty odor.

Stachybotrys sp.

Mitosporic fungus. Hyphomycetes.
Distribution

Ubiquitous;
cosmopolitan.
Approx. 15 species.

Where Found

Soil, decaying plant substrates, decomposing cellulose (hay, straw), leaf litter, and seeds. Growth not influenced by soil pH or copper; growth enhanced by manure.

Mode of Dissemination

Wet spore.
Insects, water splash.
Wind when dried out.

Allergen

Not well studied.
Type I allergies reported.

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

No reports of human infection. (No species grow well at 37°C.)

Potential Toxin Production

Macrocyclic trichothecenes: verrucarin J, roridin E, satratoxin F, G & H, sporidesmin G, trichoverrol; cyclosporins, stachybotryolactone.
Stachybotrys mycotoxicosis: human toxicosis has been described; may be characterized by dermatitis, cough, rhinitis, itching or burning sensation in mouth, throat, nasal passages and eyes. The best described toxicoses are from domestic animals that have eaten contaminated hay and straw or inhaled infected material from contaminated bedding.

Growth Indoors

Commonly found indoors on wet materials containing cellulose, such as wallboard, jute, wicker, straw baskets, and other paper materials. (See “Characteristics: Growth/Culture”).
Aw=0.94

Industrial Uses

Not known.

Other Comments

Many human reports of Stachybotrys toxicosis are anecdotal. Stachybotrys mycotoxicosis is currently the subject of toxin research.

Ascospores

Spore category. Produced by morels, truffles, cup fungi, ergot and many micro-fungi.
Distribution

Ubiquitous.
More than 3,000 genera.

Where Found

Saprophytes and plant pathogens. Found everywhere in nature.

Mode of Dissemination

Spores are predominantly forcibly discharged during periods of high humidity or rain.

Allergen

Highly variable, dependent on genus and species. Poorly studied.

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

Dependent on genus and species, but the vast majority do not cause disease.

Potential Toxin Production

Very many, dependent on genus and species.

Growth Indoors

The cellulolytic ascomycetes Chaetomium and Ascotricha are frequently found growing indoors on damp substrates.

Industrial Uses

Dependent on genus and species.

Other Comments

Some of the common asexual fungi such as Penicillium and Aspergillus produce sexual forms under certain conditions; these are classified in the ascomycete group and given distinct names. For example, the most common sexual forms of Penicillium are Talaromyces and Eupenicillium; the most common sexual forms of Aspergillus are Eurotium and Emericella.

Aureobasidium sp.

Mitosporic fungus. Hyphomycetes.
Distribution

Ubiquitous;
cosmopolitan.
Approx. 15 species.

Where Found

Soil, forest soils, fresh water, aerial portion of plants, fruit, marine estuary sediments, wood.

Mode of Dissemination

Wet spore.
Wind (when dried out), water droplet.

Allergen

Common.
Type I allergies (hay fever, asthma).
Type III hypersensitivity pneumonitis: Humidifier fever, Sauna taker’s lung.

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

Rare reports of isolates from skin lesions, keratitis, spleen abscess in a lymphoma patient, blood isolate from a leukemic patient.

Potential Toxin Production

Not known.

Growth Indoors

Widespread, where moisture accumulates, especially bathrooms and kitchens, on shower curtains, tile grout, window sills, textiles, liquid waste materials.

Industrial Uses

Used in the removal of unwanted components of raw textile materials. Aureobasidium pullulans produces pullulan (a biodegradable polysaccharide) used for packaging of food and drugs. It is processed into fibers which have a shiny gloss like rayon and have the strength of nylon.

Other Comments

Aureobasidium pullulans represents a morphologically heterogenous group of taxonomically related fungi. Very closely related to Hormonema. Older medical texts refer to this fungus by its former name Pullularia pullulans.

Basidiospores

Spore category. Produced by mushrooms, puffballs, shelf fungi, rusts, smuts, and many other fungi.
Distribution

Ubiquitous;
cosmopolitan.
Approx. 1,200 genera.

Where Found

Saprophytes and plant pathogens.
Gardens, forests, woodlands.

Mode of Dissemination

Wind; spore release (active mechanism) during periods of high humidity or rain.

Allergen

Probably common.
Type I allergies (hay fever, asthma).
Type III hypersensitivity pneumonitis: Lycoperdonosis (puffball spores), Mushroom culture hypersensitivity.

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

Asexual forms may cause rare opportunistic infections.
The yeast Cryptococcus neoformans is a basidiomycete.

Potential Toxin Production

Mushroom toxicosis (poisoning) is usually a result of ingestion of the following toxins: amanitins, monomethyl-hydrazine, muscarine, ibotenic acid, psilocybin.

Growth Indoors

Serpula lacrimans, the agent of “dry rot,” and other fungi causing white and brown wood rot, grow and destroy the structural wood of buildings. Poria incrassata causes a particularly destructive dry rot in buildings.

Industrial Uses

Many mushrooms are edible, and very important in the food industries.

Other Comments

Occasionally, a benign, non-wood rotting mushroom will fruit inside a building, growing in some unique ecological niche if enough moisture is present.
If mushrooms are found growing indoors we ask clients to submit the entire mushroom for identification.

Curvularia sp.

Mitosporic fungus. Hyphomycetes. Teleomorph (sexual state): Cochliobolus (Ascomycete).
Distribution

Ubiquitous;
cosmopolitan.
More commonly found in tropical, subtropical regions.
Approx. 30 species.

Where Found

Plant debris, soil, facultative plant pathogens of tropical or subtropical plants.

Mode of Dissemination

Dry spore.
Wind.

Allergen

Common.
Type I allergies (hay fever, asthma).
Other: A relatively common cause of allergic fungal sinusitis.

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

Occasionally a cause of onychomycosis, ocular keratitis, sinusitis, mycetoma, pneumonia, endocarditis, cerebral abscess, and disseminated infection. Most cases are from immunocompromised patients.

Potential Toxin Production

Not known.

Growth Indoors

Yes, on a variety of substrates.

Industrial Uses

Not known.

Other Comments

None.

Epicoccum sp.

Mitosporic fungus. Hyphomycetes.
Distribution

Ubiquitous;
cosmopolitan.
Two species.

Where Found

Plant debris, soil. Secondary invader of damaged plant tissue.

Mode of Dissemination

Dry spore.
Wind.
Spores also released by hygroscopic movement.

Allergen

Common.
Type I allergies (hay fever, asthma).

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

No cases of infection have been reported in humans or animals.

Potential Toxin Production

Antibiotic substances produced: flavipin, epicorazine A & B, indole-3-acetonitrile.

Growth Indoors

Yes, on many different substrates including paper, textiles, and insects.
Aw=0.86-0.90 (minimum).

Industrial Uses

None known.

Other Comments

None.

Memnoniella sp.

Mitosporic fungus. Hyphomycetes.
Distribution

Cosmopolitan.
Approx. 5 species.

Where Found

Plant litter, soil, many types of plants and trees.

Mode of Dissemination

Dry spore.
Wind.

Allergen

Not studied.

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

Not known.

Potential Toxin Production

Trichothecenes (trichodermol and trichodermin) and griseofulvins. Trichothecene toxicity is due to the ability to bind ribosomal protein. Griseofulvin has been made commercially available as an anti-dermatophyte drug.

Growth Indoors

Yes, on a variety of substrates.
Cellulolytic.

Industrial Uses

Not known.

Other Comments

Very closely related to Stachybotrys.
M. echinata produces acetic acid.

Myxomycetes

Taxonomic fungal category. Slime molds.
Distribution

Ubiquitous;
cosmopolitan.
Approx. 45 genera.

Where Found

Decaying logs, stumps and dead leaves, particularly in forested regions.

Mode of Dissemination

These organisms have both dry and wet spores.
Wind disperses the dry fruiting body spores, whereas the wet amoebic phase is motile.

Allergen

Type I allergies (hay fever, asthma).
(Lycogala used in one skin test survey.)

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

No reports of human infection.

Potential Toxin Production

None.

Growth Indoors

Occasionally found indoors.

Industrial Uses

None known.

Other Comments

The myxomycetes have an interesting life cycle which includes a wet spore phase and a dry spore phase. When conditions are favorable, they move about like amoebae, resembling primitive animals. When conditons are not favorable they form a resting body (sclerotium) with dry, airborne spores. The myxomycetes are not considered to be true fungi.

Nigrospora sp.

Mitosporic fungus. Hyphomycetes. Teleomorph (sexual state): Khuskia (ascomycete).
Distribution

Ubiquitous;
cosmopolitan.
Especially abundant in warm climates.
Approx. 4-5 species.

Where Found

Decaying plant material and soil.

Mode of Dissemination

Active discharge mechanism. Does not require wind or rain.

Allergen

Type I allergies (hay fever, asthma).

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

Very rare report of human infection.

Potential Toxin Production

Not known.

Growth Indoors

Rarely found growing indoors.

Industrial Uses

None known.

Other Comments

None.

Periconia sp.

Mitosporic fungus. Hyphomycetes.
Distribution

Ubiquitous;
cosmopolitan.
Approx. 20 species.

Where Found

Soil, blackened and dead herbaceous stems and leaf spots, grasses, rushes and sedges. Almost always associated with other fungi.

Mode of Dissemination

Dry spore.
Wind.

Allergen

Not studied.

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

Rare case of mycotic keratitis reported.

Potential Toxin Production

Not known.

Growth Indoors

Rarely found growing indoors.

Industrial Uses

None known.

Other Comments

None.

Pithomyces sp.

Mitosporic fungus. Hyphomycetes. Teleomorph (sexual state): Leptosphaerulina (Ascomycete).
Distribution

Ubiquitous;
cosmopolitan.
Approx. 15 species.

Where Found

Common on dead leaves of more than 50 different plants, especially leaf fodders. Soil, grasses.

Mode of Dissemination

Dry spore.
Wind.

Allergen

Not studied.

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

No reports of infections.

Potential Toxin Production

Sporidesmin.

Growth Indoors

Rarely found growing indoors.
Can grow on paper.

Industrial Uses

None known.

Other Comments

Pithomyces chartarum is one of the causes of facial eczema in sheep in New Zealand.

Rhinocladiella sp.

Mitosporic fungus. Hyphomycetes. Teleomorph (sexual state): Capronia (Ascomycete).
Distribution

Ubiquitous;
cosmopolitan.
Approx. 10 species.

Where Found

Soil, herbaceous substrates and decaying wood.

Mode of Dissemination

Dry spore.
Wind.

Allergen

Not studied.

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

Three cases of subcutaneous infection have been reported.

Potential Toxin Production

Not known.

Growth Indoors

Occasionally found on a variety of substrates. One species is called the cellar fungus, most commonly found on brickwork and adjacent timber in wine cellars.

Industrial Uses

None known.

Other Comments

None.

Rusts

Fungal group. Uredinales. Basidiomycetes.
Distribution

Ubiquitous;
cosmopolitan.
Approx. 14 families, 105 genera and 5,000 species.

Where Found

Grasses, flowers, trees and other living plant materials.

Mode of Dissemination

Rusts have both wet and dry spores. Wind disperses the urediospores, teliospores, basidiospores, and aeciospores. The basidiospores and aeciospores have an active spore release mechanism.

Allergen

Type I allergies (hay fever, asthma).

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

No reports of human infection.

Potential Toxin Production

Not known.

Growth Indoors

Rusts do not grow indoors unless their host plants are present. They are parasitic plant pathogens and need a living host for growth.

Industrial Uses

Not known.

Other Comments

Rusts are members of the Basidiomycetes class. They have a complex life cycle, producing five different spore types in two different plant hosts. Spore types include: basidiospores, pycniospores, aeciospores, urediospores, and teliospores.

Smuts

Fungal category. Ustilaginales. Basidiomycetes.
Distribution

Ubiquitous;
cosmopolitan.
Two families, 50 genera, and 950 species.

Where Found

On cereal crops, grasses, weeds, other fungi, and on other flowering plants.

Mode of Dissemination

Wind disperses the powdery brown teliospores of smut.

Allergen

Type I allergies (hay fever, asthma).

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

No reports of human infection by the plant parasitic forms.

Potential Toxin Production

Not known.

Growth Indoors

Smuts do not usually grow indoors. They are parasitic plant pathogens that require a living host for the completion of their life cycle.

Industrial Uses

Not known.

Other Comments

Smuts are members of the Basidiomycetes and have two spore types: teliospores (dry, powdery stage) and basidiospores (yeast stage).

Stachybotrys sp.

Mitosporic fungus. Hyphomycetes.
Distribution

Ubiquitous;
cosmopolitan.
Approx. 15 species.

Where Found

Soil, decaying plant substrates, decomposing cellulose (hay, straw), leaf litter, and seeds. Growth not influenced by soil pH or copper; growth enhanced by manure.

Mode of Dissemination

Wet spore.
Insects, water splash.
Wind when dried out.

Allergen

Not well studied.
Type I allergies reported.

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

No reports of human infection. (No species grow well at 37°C.)

Potential Toxin Production

Macrocyclic trichothecenes: verrucarin J, roridin E, satratoxin F, G & H, sporidesmin G, trichoverrol; cyclosporins, stachybotryolactone.
Stachybotrys mycotoxicosis: human toxicosis has been described; may be characterized by dermatitis, cough, rhinitis, itching or burning sensation in mouth, throat, nasal passages and eyes. The best described toxicoses are from domestic animals that have eaten contaminated hay and straw or inhaled infected material from contaminated bedding.

Growth Indoors

Commonly found indoors on wet materials containing cellulose, such as wallboard, jute, wicker, straw baskets, and other paper materials. (See “Characteristics: Growth/Culture”).
Aw=0.94

Industrial Uses

Not known.

Other Comments

Many human reports of Stachybotrys toxicosis are anecdotal. Stachybotrys mycotoxicosis is currently the subject of toxin research.

Trichoderma sp.

Mitosporic fungus. Hyphomycetes. Teleomorph (sexual state): Hypocrea (Ascomycete).
Distribution

Ubiquitous;
cosmopolitan.
Approx. 20 species.
Found in northern alpine to tropical areas.

Where Found

Soil, decaying wood, grains, citrus fruit, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, paper, textiles, damp wood.

Mode of Dissemination

Wet spore.
Rain, insects, water splash, and wind when dried out.

Allergen

Type I allergies (hay fever, asthma).
Type III hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

Human infections include a pulmonary cavity, peritonitis in a dialysis patient, and a perihepatic infection in a liver transplant patient. Considered an emerging opportunist in immunocompromised persons.

Potential Toxin Production

Trichothecene and cyclic peptides; gliotoxin, isocyanides, T-2 toxin, trichodermin. Trichoderma may cause a mycotoxicosis similar to that caused by Stachybotrys chartarum; some of the metabolic substances produced are closely related to trichothecenes.

Growth Indoors

Found on paper, tapestry, wood, in kitchens on the outer surface of unglazed ceramics and on a variety of other substrates. Strongly cellulolytic.

Industrial Uses

Trichoderma harzianum pellets have been mixed with ground bark to protect trees and vegetable crops against infections from other plant pathogens. T. viride produces cellulase and hemicellulase used in commercial beer, wine and food processing. It enhances the aroma in tea and mushroom products.

Other Comments

T. harzianum has been reported to produce antifungal trichoriazines compounds.

Ulocladium sp.

Mitosporic fungus. Hyphomycetes.
Distribution

Ubiquitous;
cosmopolitan.
Approx. 9 species.

Where Found

Soil, dung, paint, grasses, fibers, wood, decaying plant material, paper, and textiles.

Mode of Dissemination

Dry spore.
Wind.

Allergen

Major.
Type I allergies (hay fever, asthma).
Ulocladium cross-reacts with Alternaria, adding to the allergenic burden of Alternaria-sensitive patients.

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

Rare subcutaneous tissue infection.

Potential Toxin Production

Not known.

Growth Indoors

Widespread. Found on gypsum board, paper, paint, tapestries, jute, other straw materials. Ulocladium has a high water requirement.

Industrial Uses

Not known.

Other Comments

None.

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